Homemade stained glass window
Outdoor Stained Glass - Scoring and Cutting - Techniques

Creating a Stained Glass Window

Beautify Your Home With a Stained Glass Window


Stained glass windows turn craftsmanship, design, and effort into a work of art. Learn how to create a stained glass window for your home or office today using this guide. Read on, it’s easier than you think.

Designing and creating a stained glass window is a wonderful way to add beauty and character to your home. Stained glass windows help to create a more comfortable and efficient home, especially in rooms that get a lot of natural light.

The cost of creating a full stained glass window varies of course, but typically ranges from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars. Most of the cost is due to the time involved for the artisan, so if you’re doing it yourself, the cost is greatly reduced.

Either way, stained glass windows will last for many years and become family heirlooms, making them a worthwhile investment. Let’s get started.


Materials and Tools


Stained glass tools used to create a stained glass window


It’s important to start by making a list of all the materials you will need for making a stained glass window, including glass sheets, lead came, a soldering iron, flux, and patina. You should also consider what tools you will need, such as a glass cutter, pliers, and a grinder.

Once you have your list, you can start collecting the materials. You can purchase them online or at a local art supply store. It’s a good idea to gather a bit more glass and lead came than you think you’ll need, just in case of any mistakes or unexpected changes to your design.




There are quite a few producers of glass used in stained glass window production. These include Spectrum Glass, Uroboros Glass: A division of Oceanside Glass & Tile, Youghiogheny Glass, Wissmach Glass, Bullseye Glass, Stained Glass Inc., Kokomo Opalescent Glass, and Cathedral Glass.

Many different types and styles of glass are available for use in stained glass windows, each with its own unique set of properties. Opaque glass is good for areas where you want to completely block out light, while translucent glass allows light to pass through but with a softer glow.

Textured glass adds interest and depth to a design, while iridescent glass has a beautiful shimmering effect. The color of the glass you choose should be based on the overall design and the mood you want to create. Darker colors absorb more light and create a more dramatic effect, while lighter colors let more light pass through and create a brighter, airier feel.

Stained Glass in Bullseye Colors


The thickness of the glass is also an important factor to consider, as it can affect the durability and weight of the finished piece. In general, thicker glass is more durable, but it is also heavier and may require more lead came to support it. With all of the different options available, it is important to carefully consider which type of glass will work best for your project.

The most important thing to remember when creating a stained glass window is to be patient. Taking the time to choose the right glass and plan the design carefully will result in a beautiful work of art.


Lead came


Lead came is a material consisting of thin strips of lead that are soldered together to form a frame around the edges of the glass pieces. Flexible and easily cut, lead came is pliable enough to shape to most any design. To cut lead came, you can use a lead knife or a pair of lead nippers. To shape it, you can use a lead flaring tool or a lead vise.


Lead came assembly used to create a stained glass window.


The fact that lead came is both strong and somewhat flexible allows it to hold the glass in place securely. This accommodates any movement or expansion of the glass due to temperature changes. In addition, lead came adds an element of stability and structure to the stained glass window. It helps to hold the glass in place and to keep the window from falling apart. It also gives the window a finished, professional look.




A grinder is an essential tool for any stained glass artist. It is used to smooth and shape the edges of the glass pieces, which helps to ensure a precise fit when the pieces are assembled into the finished product.

Before you begin, be sure to have all the necessary safety gear, including goggles and gloves. Fill the grinder reservoir with water to cool the glass as it is ground. Put the glass on the grinder surface so that the marked side is facing up.

You use the grinder after your pieces have been cut to rough size.  Grind by holding the glass against the grinding bit. Use light pressure and move the glass in a circular motion. Continue grinding until you achieve the desired shape.


Glass grinder in use to create a stained glass window


Once the grinding process is finished, you will turn off the grinder and use a wet sponge to clean the grinder surface.


Soldering iron


Soldering is an essential part of creating a stained glass window. A soldering iron is the tool you will use to join the glass pieces into a window panel. Along with the iron itself, helpful accessories to have are a stand for your soldering iron and a method of cleaning the irons tip.

Some stands come with a brass wire tip cleaner included. Other ways to keep the tip clean are a wet sponge, tip tinner, or a sal ammoniac block.  Additionally, you will need a roll of 60/40 solder, some soldering flux and a brush.


Hakko DFX-641 used to create a stained glass window

Other tools


In addition to a grinder, soldering iron, solder, flux, and lead came, there are several other essential tools used to create a stained glass window. Running pliers, also known as breaker pliers, are used to snap glass pieces along scored lines. Grozing pliers, on the other hand, are used to trim away small amounts of glass from the edges of pieces.

Patina is a chemical finish that is applied to the soldered joints to give the finished piece a more aged and professional look. While not absolutely necessary, these additional tools will make the process of creating a stained glass window a bit easier and more efficient.


Designing your window


Sketching and prototyping


Before you start cutting and soldering, it is a good idea to spend some time sketching and prototyping your design. This will help you to visualize the finished product and make any necessary changes before you begin working with the actual materials.

To create a detailed and accurate design, it is important to carefully measure the dimensions of the window. Consider the balance and composition of the piece. Next, draw a sketch to capture the overall shape and structure of the window. If you are working with a specific theme or color palette, this is a great way to plan out how those elements will fit together.


Drawing a template to create a stained glass window


Make a prototype of the window by laying pieces of colored glass onto wax paper. This will give you an idea of how the glass pieces fit together and look when combined.

Experiment with different textures and colors to see what works best for your design. You may also want to use a lightbox or tracing paper to create a more precise representation of your design.


Transferring the design to glass


Once you have completed your design, the next step is to transfer it onto the glass. There are several methods for doing this, but we will stick with the simplest and most straightforward method here.

Draw (or create and print out) a full size template of your design. Make three copies. On each copy, mark every cutout piece on the template with three notations. First, number each piece 1 – # of pieces.  Next, write the color of glass for that piece, and lastly, draw an arrow to show the direction you want the grain or texture to flow.

Cut out each piece from the paper template. Use a glue stick to attach the cutouts to your glass sheets, matching your notes to the respective glass color and grain. Trace the piece you want to cut onto the glass with a waterproof marker. Try to position it so you don’t waste too much glass.



Cut out template pieces to create a stained glass window


Consider the grain or texture of the glass and how it will look next to other pieces. Leave about 1/4 inch around the piece so the breaking pliers will have something to grab onto when breaking the score line. Be precise in your markings to ensure that the finished product is as close to your original design as possible.


Cutting the glass


The traditional method for cutting glass is score and snap, which involves using a glass cutter to score a line on the surface. The score line weakens the glass and makes it easier to snap along the line using a pair of pliers or a breaking tool.

We have an extensive explanation of cutting glass in this post, entitled Stained glass scoring and breaking (link).


Assembling the window


Setting the glass


To begin setting the glass into the lead came, you will need to lay out your glass pieces on a work surface and arrange them in the desired pattern. Once you have the overall design established, you can start fitting the pieces into the lead came.

The key to successful glass setting is to ensure that the pieces are properly spaced and aligned within the lead came. This will ensure that the finished window looks polished and professional. To do this, you will need to use a pair of lead nippers to carefully trim the came to the appropriate length for each piece of glass.

You can then fit the glass into the came, using a lead pusher to gently secure it in place. As you work, be sure to periodically step back and check the overall alignment. This will ensure that everything is looking straight and even.


Assemble your cut glass to create a stained glass window


If you used the copper foil technique instead of lead came for your window, simply assemble your foiled pieces and solder.


Soldering the joints


Before you begin soldering, make sure that all of your glass pieces are securely held in their proper place. You may need to use masking tape or pins to hold them in place. When ready to solder, flux the areas to be joined, grab your solder, and heat up the soldering iron.

Apply the melted solder to the joint between the lead came or the foiled pieces and the glass. Move along the foiled joints at an even pace to produce a uniform bead of solder. It is important to work quickly and efficiently, as the solder hardens quickly.


Cementing a lead came window


Cementing comes after the glass is set in the lead came and the soldering is complete. Add cement to fill any gaps between the glass and the lead came. This helps to create a smooth and even surface, as well as to seal and protect the edges of the glass. A common product used in this process is Glasspro stained glass cement, along with a whiting powder applied at the end of the process. A stiff brush is used to help blend this cement into the spaces under the lead. Watch this helpful video that shows the entire process on a newly built window.


Cementing & Polishing a Stained Glass Panel

Cleaning and finishing touches


The best way to clean the window is to use a soft cloth or sponge with a mixture of warm water and mild dish soap. Gently wipe the window with the cloth or sponge, taking care not to scratch the glass. You can also use a soft-bristled brush to gently scrub away any dirt or debris that may be stuck in the solder or lead line crevices.

Applying a patina to the metal parts of the window is an elegant way to add a finishing touch. A patina is a thin layer of color that is applied to the metal to give it an antique or weathered look. Applying a patina is easy. Simply brush it onto the metal parts of the window and allow it to dry according to the instructions.

It is important to be patient and take your time when cleaning and finishing your stained glass window to ensure the best possible results. These finishing touches can greatly improve the overall appearance and feel of the window, so it is worth taking the time to do them properly.


Displaying the window


Options for displaying the window


There are several ways to display a stained glass window, depending on your preferences and the layout of your space. One option is to hang the window in a frame. This allows it to be displayed as a standalone piece and adds a decorative touch to a room.

You could also opt to install the window in a door or wall. This is a more permanent way to display the window and will add a beautiful, unique touch to your home. To do so, use special mounting hardware to keep it in place.

Alternatively, you can set it on a table or shelf, or even create a custom frame to hang it on the wall. Mostly it depends on what works best for your space. Be careful when handling the window and follow proper installation procedures to keep it safe and secure.

Stained Glass Fundamentals – How To Hang Stained Glass V328


Tips for maintaining the window


Properly maintaining your stained glass window is essential for preserving its beauty and longevity. Keep it in great condition by regularly dusting the window with a soft cloth. Avoid using harsh chemicals or abrasive materials that could scratch the glass.

If the window is particularly dirty, you can use a mild soap and water solution to clean it. Just be sure to dry the window thoroughly afterwards to prevent water spots. Finally, look for exposed edges of lead came or broken solder joints and add additional solder or cement if needed.




If you’re interested in trying your hand at creating stained glass windows, I say go for it. Stained glass is a beautiful and rewarding art form that will add color and interest to any space.

There are plenty of resources available for all skill levels to help you get started. We suggest an in-person local class where you can have some one on one instruction.

For those who are feeling more confident, there are plenty of opportunities to take your craft to the next level. Consider signing up for an advanced class to learn new techniques and materials. Of course, you can always just experiment on your own to see what you can create.

Take your skills to another level. Read this post entitled – Embellishing stained glass with paint (link to post)

Have fun and enjoy the process of creating something beautiful with your own two hands. Just jump in and do it!